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What's coming up in ASTD Press books?

February 18, 2011 14:46 by Tora Estep

It's that time of year again. When we at the Press are scrambling to get books ready for the International Conference & Exposition, and somehow all of that content seems to run together into a big blur. So what I am working on that you can expect to see in Orlando?

First off, we've got the revised edition of Consulting on the Inside by Beverly Scott and B. Kim Barnes coming out in the beginning of March. In her endorsement, Elaine Biech says, "Expecting nothing but excellence from these two master consultants, I was not disappointed to see new models and valuable concepts intertwined with many of the practical tools such as sample contracts, agendas, team charters, and others from the first edition. Bev and Kim ensure your success from helping you define your internal consulting role, to overcoming the most common challenges, through ensuring successful implementation. They do this with the practical ease of consultants who really know their business. Consulting on the Inside sits obligingly on my bookshelf within easy reach at all times." In other words, this book is packed with tools and information; moreover, the authors have provided a wealth of web appendixes, which will be made available in a few weeks. I will be sure to post a blog when the webpage is up and running. 

Next is another revision. This time of ASTD Press's most popular book of all time: Telling Ain't Training. Authors Harold Stolovitch and Erica Keeps have revised and expanded this treasure while maintaining the relaxed voice and research-based content of the original. You can expect to see that one sometime in early May.

Rita Smith, vice president of enterprise learning for Ingersoll Rand, has written Strategic Learning Alignment, which provides a model that provides clear explanations of how executives in organizations speak and what they want, which will help leaders of learning organizations to communicate their value, get recognition, and make a difference. The book will be out in early May.

Last, but not least, I am working on a contributed volume called The Executive Guide to Integrated Talent Management. Edited by Pat Galagan and Kevin Oakes, the book features 17 chapters written by "gurus" and practitioners that will take you inside the concept and practice of integrated talent management. Topics covered include an overview of integrated talent management; recruiting; compensation and rewards; performance management; succession management; engagement and retention; leadership development; as well as section on pulling it all together. This book will also be available in May.

Of course, I am not the only person working on books at the Press. Ashley McDonald, who came on board only a few months ago, is working on a revision of ISD From the Ground Up by Chuck Hodell and 10 Steps to Successful Change Management by George Vukotich, both of which will be available at ASTD's International Conference and Exposition in May. And you show up to the conference, don't forget to stop by the store and say hi! I'll be there! Smile

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Categories: Celebrity Bloggers

Managing managers

February 11, 2011 15:31 by Tora Estep

IncMagazine just tweeted an article about how to manage managers that provides some guidelines for ensuring that the people you hire are helping you to grow your business. The article outlines these steps for managing managers:

  1. Set the vision: Make sure your managers know what they are managing toward.
  2. Document the details and communicate: Make sure managers have the details they need, both the hows (such as those found in an employee handbook) and the whys (such as would be communicated in the strategy). Meet regularly with them.
  3. Measure tasks. Alice Waagen, founder and president of Workforce Learning, provides some specific performance guidelines. (Alice Waagen has also written some Infolines for ASTD, including "Task Analysis," "Essentials for Evaluation," and "How to Budget Training."
  4. Manage behavior. The article notes that most employees quit because of bad managers and provides some guidelines for helping managers become better people managers.
  5. Finally, the best way to manage a manager is to coach him or her to fix his or her own problems, rather than fixing them yourself.

In the last couple of years, ASTD Press has published a variety of books with guidelines for becoming a better manager, including

To browse the ASTD Press collection of management titles, click here.

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Categories: Celebrity Bloggers

More stuff happening at #TK11

February 4, 2011 14:10 by Tora Estep

So I started trying to capture some of what was coming out of ASTD TechKnowledge 2011 Conference and Exposition on Twitter yesterday, but so much is happening that I ran out of time. Here's some more information to report from there (for more collections of backchannel info, check out Misadventures in Learning):

  • Well, ASTD got a couple of digs about the use of paper-based evaluations for TK. I guess we'll need to think about that for upcoming conferences!
  • Michael Allen had a session about instructional design that generated a lot of comments (what's really cool is that he is going to do a book for us called Leaving ADDIE Behind that will be coming out later this year! Because I will be working on that book, expect to hear about it here!). Some representative comments:
    • The "rules" get in the way of learning. Who's to say how long it takes or what path students should take to learning?
    • People want to "do" things, not read about doing things.
    • We need to create experiences, not instruction.
    • ESD instead of ISD.
    • A lot of people were asking, "Is ISD dying as an instructional design tool?" Seems like Allen may be saying it is.
    • What's the last thing learners should be doing, and in what context? Then ask, what challenges will learners face?
  • Several comments came out of Marc Rosenberg's session on managing organizational knowledge in the age of Web 2.0:
    • KM is getting knowledge from people who have it to people who need it.
    • Most of what you know is NOT on the internet. It's in your head. Social applied to the internet makes it easier to get it out.
    • Most companies can't surface the creativity and knowledge their people have.
    • When you produce and consume information on the internet, you care about the quality and can easily weed out the crap stuff.
    • Training can extinguish people's ability; learning to learn.  
    • Stop waiting for this to be perfected. It will never be perfected.
    • Moving beyond elearning to eknowledge. Think big, start small.
  • Anders Gronstedt's session about using games, social media, and virtual worlds in the workplace got several comments:
    • Points, badges, levels, time-pressure, challenges, and rewards to engage.
    • Use gamification to get unstuck from the academic paradigm.
    • Skillset may be different but cost is transferable when designing in virtual worlds or using video.
    • Moving role play from classroom to virtual environment giving much better results.
    • Being inside the data lets you see patterns you wouldn't otherwise see.
    • No one ever logged in to Webex just to hang out. They do in virtual worlds.

Actually, just a general reading of the Twitter feed illustrates different ways that it can be used. A lot of people obviously signed up for Twitter for the first time and started asking questions about how to use it. @stevier and @TerrenceWing, obviously long time users of Twitter, explained that you have to use Twitter to really understand its value and arrranged a Tweetup at a nearby bar. @TerrenceWing and @ASTD pointed to The ASTD TechKnowledge Daily, an online newspaper reporting what's going on every day at TK11. Some folks missed meet to eat, so they made other arrangements. And a lot of people who weren't able to make it to the conference commented that they were glad to be able to get in some of the action through Twitter. So there are a few things you can get from Twitter: basically live reports of the action, opportunities to meet virtually and in reality with people, and tons of information from multiple sources.  

And that's going to be it for what's going on at TK (at least as viewed through Twitter) for today, but I will get back with some more summaries and comments on Monday! Have a great weekend, and safe travels to all conference attendees! Oh, and I almost forgot, for those of you who want more or weren't able to make to the conference, all is not lost! You can still sign up for the Virtual Conference!  

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Categories: Celebrity Bloggers | TechKnowledge

Why Trainers Should Visit the Apple® Store

October 7, 2010 18:58 by Mick Mortlock


Apple has done a brilliant job of disguising a learning center as a technology store. The room is full of motivated learners who really want to be there. The lighting is excellent and every display is designed to teach you about Apple technology.


Most of the trainers (Apple calls them specialists) are speaking with learners about how to solve a problem. If the learner’s technology is not the right tool to solve the learner’s problem, the specialist will present different options that may, but may not, involve another purchase.


While you are in the store, stop and listen to the conversations. Customers bring teachable moments into the store with them, and you can hear these skilled teachers sparkle. Notice how many learning styles and personality types are addressed.


Consult a Genius

When a problem is too difficult for a specialist, Apple has a crew of Geniuses. The Genius Label is emblazoned on their blue shirts, and their business card identifies them as Geniuses.


You have to make an appointment to even speak to a Genius. By the time of my appointment, I was in awe. I had asked a mere specialist if he aspired to be a Genius. “Of course,” he said, “they do all this learning, get certifications, and really know what they are doing.”


What About the Children?


The other evening, all ages were in the Apple Store. A two-year-old sat on the floor exploring colors and sounds on a Mac loaded with software appropriate for her age. Some teens were listening to music while others manipulated  iPhones or iPads.


Apple is teaching the youngest among us to be future customers, and that, my colleagues, is leveraging the real power of training.


 *There are no paid endorsements in this posting.


Mick Mortlock


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Categories: Celebrity Bloggers


September 15, 2010 13:29 by Mick Mortlock

Intel’s early work in eTraining, at least for the personal computer, was foundational and laid the basis for almost all contemporary eLearning. Animation, simulations, audio, text and images were part of our earliest thinking. Digital video was added shortly thereafter. But what about the instructional design?

Almost thirty years ago, I formed the Intel Hypermind User’s Group to marry incredible technology with the principles of learning. Members of the iHUG eventually became affiliates of the “Inventing the Future” program, named in honor of Stewart Brand’s label for what was happening in the MIT Media Lab.

We knew that Alan Turing had developed a test for computer “intelligence.” He said, put a computer in one room, a human in a second, and a researcher in a third and hook them all up so they can engage in dialogue. If the researcher asks a question and cannot tell whether he is communicating with the human or the computer that computer would be designated as intelligent. That computer will have passed the Turing Test.

While exploring Turing’s work, we came up with a Turing Test for eLearning. Using similar ideas, we proposed “when a person can learn from a computer as well as they would learn from an expert teacher who is also a subject matter expert, then that eLearning would have been successful.” I argued strongly that there needed to be a standard like this to help establish legitimacy and to give us something to shoot for in developing this new field. As brilliant as it seemed, this idea was ignored in the corporate world, and largely ignored within Intel. Now after 30 years of working on this problem, I believe I was wrong.

There are two projects that convinced me.  I did some work with Jerry Spriggs, an Instructional Design manager at HP. His group developed scenarios and built eLearning applications to demonstrate them. Sometimes the scenarios were straight forward, sometimes they were wry and witty.

They all presented an assignment that needed to be completed. First a quirky story, then step-by-step procedure. These simple little eLearning applications were successful. Customers using the eLearning could do the work. They were confident, competent, and they reported that they felt much more capable after the training.

These results drove me crazy. There was no computer that behaved like an expert teacher who was also a subject matter expert. These were simple programs that gave people a story and something easy to do. For thirty years I have carried the idea that this couldn’t work without a system that passed an eLearning Turing Test. Could I really be wrong?

Do We Need Teachers At All?

The next blow to my theory of what good online learning requires came from India. Sugata Mitra, an energetic, imaginative leader in the education movement started “The Hole in the Wall Project.”  He put computers all around the world in poor areas where he thought teachers wouldn’t go. He would provide an assignment with no instruction and then he would leave. He came back after a couple of months to see what had happened.

In some of the areas where English skills were low, children were able to use the computers to teach themselves geography, even when instructions were in English. Ten-year-olds figured out basic principles in genomics. Third graders learned and could explain the Pythagorean theorem. Children using Google and basic PC tools were able to grasp ideas far beyond what researchers expected. 

Not only did they discover that a Turing Test for eLearning was not required, they learned that teachers were not necessary. In a recent TED talk, Mitra explained that self-organizing systems do not need outside influences to develop themselves and he concluded that “education is a self-organizing system where learning is an emergent phenomenon. “


Mick Mortlock

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Categories: Celebrity Bloggers | Research

Isolating the Effects of Your Program: An Offensive Play

August 29, 2010 12:31 by Patti Phillips

Some people will say that the step to isolate the effects of your programs when measuring and evaluating their results is a defensive move. This can easily be said for evaluation at large. Anytime the ball is being run toward your goal, you’re on the defense – protecting what is yours. The key is in taking the offense and addressing tough questions before they are asked.

The Tough Questions

Mike Swan is the training manager at a large tire retail company. He piloted a new training initiative in five stores. The purpose of the training was to reduce customer wait time and increase the number of cars serviced per day. Upon completion of the pilot, data showed that customer wait time had gone down and cars serviced per day increased. Mike shared these data with his Chief Learning Office (CLO) as well as the Chief Financial Officer (CFO), hoping to receive enough funding to implement the initiative in other stores. The CFO, impressed there had been improvement in the two measures, asked:

“How much of that improvement is actually due to the program?”

Mike responded that he could not say with any level of certainty, but he said he knew that without the training, the improvement would not have occurred. The CFO asked a second question:

“How do you know?”

When Mike could not answer, the CFO suggested that he find out before he received additional funding. Mike is now playing defense .

The Emotional Debate

Had Mike addressed the isolation issue during the evaluation and presented the positive results so that answers to the tough questions were evident, Mike may have received funding on the spot. All the executives wanted to know was how much change in improvement was due to the program--a fair question.

Those who argue that you cannot or should not isolate the effects of a program are often uninformed or misinformed. While a long-time part of the research process, this important step of measurement and evaluation was first brought to light in the training industry in the late 1970s when Jack Phillips developed the ROI Methodology. It was later incorporated into the first Handbook of Training Evaluation and Measurement Methods published in the U.S. by Gulf Publishing and authored by Jack Phillips (1983). The book, now going into its fourth edition, is used by training managers and academia worldwide. In spite of the wide application and acceptance by executives and researchers of this important step, the topic of isolating the effects of the program stirs up such an emotion in people that one has to wonder whether or not there is a fear that maybe the training does not make a contribution.

It is because of this debate and the need for more information that this topic is covered in the ASTD Handbook of Measuring and Evaluating Training. In this chapter author Bruce Aaron, Ph.D., capability strategy manager for Accenture, describes the importance of isolating the effects of your programs through the evaluation process. He describes some of the approaches often used by organizations. As you read the chapter, you will find there are a variety of techniques available.

The End of the Debate

Will this debate of isolating the effects of the program ever end? That’s like asking the question, will the need for evaluation ever end? Hopefully the answer to both is no. Without debate, there is no research – without research there is no grounding – and without grounding there is no sustainability.

Fortunately, more than ever, individuals responsible for training measurement and evaluation are taking the offense. They are pursuing good evaluation, including isolating the effects of their programs. They plan ahead and can answer the tough questions – before they are asked.



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Categories: Books | Celebrity Bloggers | Evaluation and ROI

Getting the Most out of ASTD ICE 2010

May 13, 2010 07:44 by Patti Phillips


As you prepare for your trip to Chicago, think about how you can get the highest return on your ASTD ICE investment.  Consider the following questions and corresponding tips:

  1. What can you do before your trip to ensure you get the content you need back on the job?

    • Plan your sessions.
    • Work with you manager to target key learning outcomes.
    • Clear the deck so you don't worry about what you are missing at work.
  2. What can you do during the conference to ensure you get the content you need back on the job?

    • Show up! (That's half the battle)
    • Turn off the Blackberry, iPhone, during sessions.
    • Ask relevant questions.
    • Engage in exercises.
    • Attend sessions with an open mind.
  3. What can you do after the conference to transfer learning into action?

    • Compile all of your notes into one system (do this on the plane ride home if possible!)
    • Meet with you manager to discuss key learning outcomes.
    • Present content to your team.
    • Apply at least one new skill, knowledge area, or piece of information within three days of your return.
    • Follow-up with at least one new contact within three days of your return.
Remember, a positive return on investment comes from the benefits gained by applying new knowledge, skill, and information. Without application, there are no results. So develop your learning transfer strategy plan and make the most out of ASTD ICE 2010.

See you at the conference!

Join Rebecca Ray and me at the bookstore as we launch the new ASTD Handbook of Measuring and Evaluating Training.




Categories: Books | Celebrity Bloggers | Conferences | Evaluation and ROI | International

Aspire to be great and just ignore the "Seat at the Table"

March 17, 2010 20:33 by Mick Mortlock

I’ve never been on the executive staff although I have ridden with my company president in his helicopter; I have been on a first name basis with more than one president of Intel, and I feel like I have exercised a great deal of influence driving the importance of employee learning into the strategies of various corporations and government agencies. However, I have never seen anyone do this better than Ray Jackson.


Ray also did not sit on the board or the executive staff, just the opposite. Moved from the field as a senior consultant in a Public Sector Information Services organization to a minor position as an assistant dean in the corporate university, Ray had directors, vice presidents, and company board members angling to sit next to him, in his office, at the cafeteria, and at many a hotel bar as he traveled the world.


Organizational Transformers Recruited


In the late-1990s, Ray worked at Unisys Corporation. Unisys had been at the forefront of business computing when computing was large scale, gymnasium size large. Unisys had trouble making the leap to mini-computers, personal computers, and then services. 


To help guide a turnaround, Unisys lured Larry Weinbach away from his CEO position in one of the big accounting firms. There, Weinbach had quadrupled revenues, from $2.3B to $11B and was ready for a new challenge.


Weinbach inherited a Unisys with a command-and-control corporate culture where rank and seniority ruled, a cultural history where parts of the company were literally rooted in the Industrial Age. Secretaries still made coffee, and when they dared speak, it was in hushed tones, at least while they were in the presence of “the great ones,” who ruled the empire.


Open Source Learning


Ray Jackson was a visionary in a new world. While the directorate at Unisys was still talking about a knowledge economy, Jackson brought Weinbach an early taste of the open source revolution in the learning space, complete with ideas that writer Don Tapscott has called the “roar of collaborative culture” and “emergence and serendipitous innovation.” Jackson saw collaborative and conversational learning as part of a powerful transformative process – instead of waiting for change, people realized they could be the change.


After Jackson had worked out the kinks in his first classroom event, CEO Weinbach attended one of the classes. “On the way out to his car,” Jackson reports, “he grabs me by the arm and says we have to get as many people through this program as possible, come by my office tomorrow and let's talk.”


Anyone Can Edit


Jackson and Weinbach realized that to revitalize a moribund workforce they had to motivate everyone, whether they were designing services for the Government of Sweden or plugging chips into circuit boards at a factory outside Detroit. The Unisys University Leadership School was not just for the chosen few, and working with a committee of senior executives, they decided on an approach that Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales might have sanctioned. They decided to create a corporate culture where everyone could be a leader, and that like Wikipedia “anyone can edit.”


Instead of developing 25 leaders, Jackson worked tirelessly leading the Leadership School to begin developing dozens, then hundreds, and eventually thousands around the world, working them through an original curriculum designed specifically to support the Unisys transformation, in all businesses, at all levels, in all geographies, veteran and rookie managers alike.


“I Am the Change, I Want to See”


They used one of several five-day programs as a process to begin transforming the company. The process began mundanely enough in the classroom, but the conversational learning Jackson championed soon had participants riveted. By the 3rd or 4th night, attendees reported they were being changed by the experience.


They began integrating it beyond their work and into their families and communities. They reported that they felt more energetic and that they were accomplishing more. For the first time in 20 or more years, they were feeling like their work was important. Classmates stayed in touch, and alumni from different programs found common ground to work together. Jackson’s unique approach to learning created a profoundly personal experience, but in a shared context – individual relevance in collective power.


A Tsunami of Changed Leaders


This led to wave after wave of executives attending and embracing Ray Jackson’s concept of leadership, until several thousand executives from all levels of Unisys became converts to Jackson’s collaborative, vision charged leadership style. When the leadership community called for the CEO staff to go through the same five-day program as they did, Weinbach agreed. In an unprecedented move, the Unisys Executive Committee spent five days with Jackson, learning the same insights in the same way as the thousands before them. The feedback from that session was impressive and it sent a strong message to the rest of the company.


The Recession Takes Its Toll


This catharsis was ultimately a victim to falling values in the stock market and transitions in leadership. Despite success at a personal level, executive enthusiasm only motivates shareholders for a brief time. And after several years, it was time for Weinbach and several others to retire, and in a move typical in US corporations, the remaining allies were strongly encouraged to resign as well, leaving the Unisys revolution without a strong sustaining leadership base. 




The problem that Ray Jackson and Larry Weinbach solved was this: They created, for the first time in a major corporation, a way to liberate the workforce to be individually responsible for change, while accelerating leadership learning throughout the organization.


The Ray Jackson story reveals if your goal is to drive strategic change and create an organization with embedded and on-going learning, the aspiration to be invited to the table is not the strongest move you can make. Instead, use your energy to:

  • Make outstanding contributions.
  • Serve all levels of the population.
  • Become a connector:  rookie managers to other rookies, rookies to senior managers; seniors with other seniors, and
  • Invite everyone to your table.


For More Information:

Mick Mortlock’s Website Biography

Wikinomics – Don Tapscott, Anthony Williams

Wikipedia – Jimmy Wales

A Seat at the Table – Marc Miller

Business Week on Ray Jackson

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Categories: Celebrity Bloggers | Government

Using Action Plans to Align Programs with the Business

February 21, 2010 12:34 by Patti Phillips

Business alignment is an imperative if you are interested in driving a positive return on your organization's training investment. As described in an earlier blog,  Positioning Your Programs for Success in 2010, the process of achieving alignment includes four steps:

1. Clarify stakeholder needs
2. Develop SMART objectives
3. Communicate program objectives
4. Evaluate success, including the ROI when appropriate

Clarying the ultimate need, or the payoff need, sets the stage for identifying a correct solution. But it is the business need that defines specific measures that must improve in order to take advantage of the payoff opportunity. These business needs represents the business measures that will ultimately be converted to monetary value and compared to the program costs, used in the ROI calculation. But what happens when business measures are not so clear? How do you align a program to the business when participants come to the program armed with their own specific business needs?  When these situations occur, try using action plans.

What is an action plan?

In Chapter 8 of the upcoming ASTD Handbook of Measuring and Evaluating Training (coming soon!), Holly Burkett describes action plans in detail. But in a nutshell, an action plan is a tool by which participants identify specific actions they will take using content presented in your program to achieve some end. That 'end' is often the improvement in key business measures. Below is an example of an action plan intended to align planned actions with improvement in a business measure and calculate the ROI.

How does action planning work?

To ensure a successful action planning process, the following steps should be followed at their designated time frames.

Before the Program

Prior to the program, set the stage for action planning.

  • Communicate the action plan requirement.
  • As part of pre-work, have participants identify the business measure(s) that need to improve (and that can improve) through the successful application of knowledge, skill, and/or information presented in the program.

During the Program

During the program participants learn more about action planning.

  • Describe the action planning process at the beginning of the program.
  • Teach the action planning process, explaining how the document should be completed.
  • Allow time to develop the action plan.
  • Have the facilitator approve the action plan.
  • Require participants to assign monetary value to their business measures and provide the basis for this value (see Items A, B, C on the right side of the action plan).
  • If time allows, have participants present their action plans to the group.
  • Explain the follow-up process.

After the Program

Post-program activities serve as the follow-up evaluation.

  • Require participants to provide improvement data (Item D on the right side of the action plan).
  • Ask participants to isolate the effects of the program (Item E on the right side of the action plan).
  • Ask participants to provide their confidence level in their estimates (Item F on the right side of the action plan).
  • Collect action plans at a pre-determined follow-up time.
  • Summarize the data and calculate the ROI.

* * * *

The action planning process takes effort, but can be a powerful tool for collecting business impact data. In addition, data collected through the action planning process are used to calculate the ROI.

For an example of action planning in action, watch the webcast, Measuring the ROI in Performance Improvement Training The webcast was conducted on behalf of The actual case study (which serves as the handout referenced in the webcast) is attached below.


02.19.2010_Measuring ROI in Performance Improvement Training_Using Action Plans to Collect Level 4 Data.pdf (582.08 kb)

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Categories: Books | Celebrity Bloggers | Evaluation and ROI

Learning and technology – what have we learnt? Blog Post by Martyn Sloman, Kingston University

February 8, 2010 09:49 by ASTD Research

We have now experienced ten years of e-learning and this is a good time to reflect on its impact. Sloman’s (2009) paper entitled “Learning and technology – what have we learnt?” explores the progression of e-learning and its possible future directions. It extracts research conducted by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD), in the UK, from 2001 to 2008.

CIPD’s research found that 57% of the responding organizations had used e-learning in some form, highlighting how e-learning has become an essential part of training delivery today. Although organizations seem to recognize some advantageous benefits of the delivery method, training managers on the other hand, did not consider e-learning to be as effective. Only 7% of training managers chose e-learning to be the most effective practice. This disparity highlights that organizations perceive greater benefits in e-learning than learners and trainers do.

This incongruity in perspectives acts as a great reminder of what organizations should be doing when designing and implementing e-learning programs for their employees. With a decade of experience in this subject matter, there is greater awareness of successful practices, which needs to be leveraged to help the future of e-learning. My article highlights the CIPD’s view, that the following principles should be adopted to underlie any e-learning strategy, program, or intervention:

·         Start with the learner: Know your audience – acknowledge the needs, preferences, strengths and limitations of your target audience. 

·         Relevance drives out resistance: Learners are more likely to engage with the e-learning program if they recognize its bearing to the organization.

·         Take account of intermediaries: Regardless of delivery methods, learners need both support and challenge. Intermediaries are essential in achieving this, even with e-learning.   

·         Embed activity in the organization: E-learning cannot take place in isolation; it has to be integrated with other training courses and human management training systems. 

·         Support and automate: E-learning should be used as one element, within a range of formal and informal support mechanisms which can help learners to work and learn.


Sloman, M. (2009). Learning and technology – what have we learnt? Impact: Journal of Applied Research in Workplace E-learning, 1(1), 12-26.


Categories: Celebrity Bloggers | Research